BIOS E-156 Vaccines for the New Millennium
Immunization is considered one of the great success stories of modern medicine. Despite this remarkable achievement, new vaccines must be developed to address the health needs of the globalized twenty-first century world, which is characterized by an aging society, emerging infections, and poverty in low-income countries. The first part of the course reviews how vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection. We discuss current strategies and challenges for the development of vaccines against emerging infections and infectious diseases affecting undeveloped countries, elderly populations, patients with chronic diseases, and travelers. The course examines some of the revolutionary technologies used for vaccine development, including reverse vaccinology, conjugation, nucleic acid vaccines, synthetic vaccines, virus-like particles, next-generation technologies, and development and use of novel adjuvants. The course also covers vaccines of the future, currently under development, against a number of important emerging and re-emerging pathogens such as Coronavirus, Ebola, Zika, and HIV viruses. The second half of the course focuses on case studies derived from current scientific literature. Upon completion of the course students have a better understanding of how vaccines work, the need and priorities for future vaccines, and knowledge of the newest vaccine development technologies.